Septic shock develops as a result of the rapid progression of sepsis due to the massive release of proinflammatory mediators, and is characterized by severe hypotension and tissue hypoxia. While early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) and polymyxin B direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) have shown effectiveness in the treatment of septic shock, no biomarkers are available to accurately assess the therapeutic responses in such patients. Here, we performed the first whole blood gene expression profiling in a successfully treated case of septic shock. A 74-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit and diagnosed with septic shock and dangerously low blood pressure (50/38 mmHg). High Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (40 and 14, respectively) indicated a significant probability of a fatal outcome.